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Derniers articles

  • Transposon tools : worldwide landscape of intellectual property and technological developments.

    24 mars 2020, par Palazzoli F, Testu FX, Merly F, Bigot Y — Genetica
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    Transposon tools: worldwide landscape of intellectual property and technological developments.

    Genetica. 2010 Mar;138(3):285-99

    Authors: Palazzoli F, Testu FX, Merly F, Bigot Y

    Abstract
    DNA transposons are considered to be good candidates for developing tools for genome engineering, insertional mutagenesis and gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, as illustrated by the recent first clinical trial of a transposon. In this article we set out to highlight the interest of patent information, and to develop a strategy for the technological development of transposon tools, similar to what has been done in many other fields. We propose a patent landscape for transposon tools, including the changes in international patent applications, and review the leading inventors and applicants. We also provide an overview of the potential patent portfolio for the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposons that are exploited by spin-off companies. Finally, we discuss the difficulties involved in tracing relevant state-of-the-art of articles and patent documents, based on the example of one of the most promising transposon systems, including all the impacts on the technological development of transposon tools.

    PMID: 19957019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Diurnal variations of performance and information processing.

    1er mars 2020, par Testu F — Chronobiologia
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    Diurnal variations of performance and information processing.

    Chronobiologia. 1986 Oct-Dec;13(4):319-26

    Authors: Testu F

    Abstract
    The aim of the study was to establish whether performance of a task in which controlled search is required fluctuates during the day or, on the other hand, performance of a task in which the automatic detection is required does not fluctuate during the day. The material and the procedure for setting the subject with an automatic detection set and for controlled search were determined as experimental paradigms and based on the results of the studies published by Shiffrin and Schneider. Eighteen volunteers from first and second year students of Psychology (9 boys and 9 girls) took part in the study. The study was done in January and February 1985 in the Laboratory of experimental psychology of Tours (France) on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays. Each subject individually participated in 4 sessions on the same day, at 08(30); 11(45); 13(45) and 17(00). The results indicate that the performances (number of the targets correctly detected and the reaction time) only fluctuate in the course of the day when the controlled search is required. We suggest that the independence or the dependence of performance variation may be linked to the use of one or another of the two information processes described by Shiffrin and Schneider: controlled search and automatic detection.

    PMID: 3816404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Diurnal variation in mental activities of French pupils and influence of test protocol.

    1er mars 2020, par Testu F — Chronobiol Int
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    Diurnal variation in mental activities of French pupils and influence of test protocol.

    Chronobiol Int. 1992 Dec;9(6):439-43

    Authors: Testu F

    Abstract
    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the test protocol (individual vs. group) on the diurnal variations in mental activity of 18 11-year-old pupils. Number cancellation, a spatial orientation test, and mathematical problems were tested four times on three successive Fridays at 08:45, 11:15, 13:45 and 16:45 h. On the first and third Fridays the tests were performed on the group of subjects, whereas individual subjects were tested on the second Friday. Results indicated a possible influence of the test protocol (individual vs. group) on intellectual rhythmicity. Only in the group protocol did we find the psychological profile which is normally observed, namely, a performance increase during the morning, a postlunch fall, and then an increase in the afternoon. We suggest the existence of some group effect in these performance tests.

    PMID: 1473197 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [Biological, behavioral and intellectual rhythms in pupils during the school-day].

    1er mars 2020, par Montagner H, Testu F — Pathol Biol (Paris)
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    [Biological, behavioral and intellectual rhythms in pupils during the school-day].

    Pathol Biol (Paris). 1996 Jun;44(6):519-33

    Authors: Montagner H, Testu F

    Abstract
    We report in this paper the data separately collected for 15 years by the research teams of Montagner and Testu on the daily fluctuations of the periodical type and ultradian and circadian rhythms of biological, behavioural and mental variables which are or could be linked to or correlated with the fluctuations of intellectual activity in pupils throughout the school-day. The variables under study are the behaviours which are considered to be indicators of vigilance and non vigilance (arousal and drowsiness), corporal activation, heart rate, blood pressure, performances in tests of vigilance, targeted attention, spatial structuration and logical construction, and also in usual school tasks. Studies were carried out on different children populations at all ages (in this article we only report data on children attending primary school and partly kindergarten) in different French schools and, with regard to Testu's studies, several european schools in England, Germany and Spain. The main data collected by both teams are comparable in many respects: 1) the vigilance level and intellectual performances of pupils of all ages are weak or relatively weak at the beginning of the school activities, i.e. from 8 to 9 or 9:30 according to the studies and measured variables, as the biological constraints are not at a high level (heart rate and blood pressure); 2) the same items or patterns significantly increase throughout school time up to 11:30 or noon according to the studies with the exception of the 11:00-11:30 span in Montagner's research in children attending the first level of primary school, as the biological constraints decrease; 3) in most studies the vigilance level and intellectual performances are weak or relatively weak at the beginning of the school-time following the lunch, and the biological constraints are the strongest of the day (from 13:30 to 15:00) ; 4) the vigilance level and intellectual performances are always higher in the middle of the school-day (i.e. from 15:00 to 17:00) than at the beginning of the afternoon, and the biological constraints are weaker.

    PMID: 8977909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Time-of-day and day-of-week effects on mnemonic performance.

    1er mars 2020, par Testu F, Clarisse R — Chronobiol Int
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    Time-of-day and day-of-week effects on mnemonic performance.

    Chronobiol Int. 1999 Jul;16(4):491-503

    Authors: Testu F, Clarisse R

    Abstract
    The present study attempts to determine whether diurnal variations in memory performance like the ones observed by Folkard et al. (1977) are independent of the testing day (Monday or Thursday) and the type of material (story or word list). In the experiment, 103 pupils aged 10 and 11 had to listen to a story and learn a list of 14 nouns at 09:00 or 15:00 on Monday or Thursday. Immediately after presentation of the information and then again 1 week later the pupils had to answer questions about the story and recall the list of nouns. The results showed that the type of task had no effect on memory performance, but immediate and delayed recall scores were dependent on both the time and the day the information was presented. Moreover, memory performance was also affected by the time at which the delayed recall test took place. On Monday and especially on Thursday, better performance was obtained at 09:00. This data only partially confirms the findings of Folkard et al.

    PMID: 10442242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Effects of alcohol on psycho-technical tests and social communication in a festive situation : a chronopsychological approach.

    1er mars 2020, par Clarisse R, Testu F, Reinberg A — Chronobiol Int
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    Effects of alcohol on psycho-technical tests and social communication in a festive situation: a chronopsychological approach.

    Chronobiol Int. 2004 Jul;21(4-5):721-38

    Authors: Clarisse R, Testu F, Reinberg A

    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of consuming alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic beverages on performance of psycho-technical tasks (attentional and general nonverbal intelligence tasks) and social behavior at different times of day. Both alcoholic and nonalcoholic consumption took place in a largely festive situation. The experiment was conducted on 184 degree-level and postgraduate students (94 female and 90 male) divided into eight independent groups for study at different times: 8:00 to 11:00, 11:00 to 14:00, 14:00 to 17:00, 17:00 to 20:00h. The main result obtained, by analysis of variance (ANOVA), showed that time of day had no effect on the performance of psycho-technical tasks nor on social communication, except for the retest situation in the attentional task. Alcohol (equal to approximately 0.5 g/L of blood) facilitated communication, but basically it had no effect on any of the psycho-technical performance tests. For the latter, an interaction was observed between when the test was done and type of beverage consumed. Alcohol appears to alter the expected change in performance in the retest situation. The results suggest that the body's sensitivity to a measured quantity of alcohol differs according to the cognitive processes involved.

    PMID: 15470964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • [A comparative study of nocturnal sleep duration and timetable of children between five- and ten-years-old according to their age and socio-economic environment].

    1er mars 2020, par Clarisse R, Testu F, Maintier C, Alaphilippe D, Le Floc'h N, Janvier B — Arch Pediatr
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    [A comparative study of nocturnal sleep duration and timetable of children between five- and ten-years-old according to their age and socio-economic environment].

    Arch Pediatr. 2004 Feb;11(2):85-92

    Authors: Clarisse R, Testu F, Maintier C, Alaphilippe D, Le Floc'h N, Janvier B

    Abstract
    AIM: This study was conducted on a sample of 644 pupils between the ages of five and ten years at school in the Orléans-Tours education authority with the aim of studying the nocturnal sleep duration and timetable of young children according to age and socio-economic environment.
    METHOD: In order to find out about children's sleeping habits (duration, time of going to bed and getting up, and weekly variations) a standard grid was used to carry out a cross-sectional survey in the children's families. This was filled in each day from Monday to Sunday during the same school week for all the children.
    RESULTS: Sleep duration decreased with age from maternelle to CM2 (nursery to last year of primary education). Data relating to sleep duration from CE2 (third year of primary school - 8-year-old -) showed differences according to whether the school belonged to an Educational Priority Zone (EPZ) or not. It was noticed that between five- and ten-year-old children from EPZ lost 62 minutes of sleep, whereas those not from EPZ only lost 29 minutes. These results would suggest that in addition to developmental factors, environmental factors also play a role in sleep duration. The differences observed were due to later bed times for children from EPZ. Weekly variations in sleep were generally very similar for all the children. At the weekend all the children tended to go to bed later, however this was more noticeable Saturday night for children not living in EPZ. Children slept the longest on Tuesday night due to the fact they got up later Wednesday morning (Wednesday is a day off in the majority of French schools). However, children from the age of nine (CM1 - forth year of primary education -) in EPZ did not benefit from this recuperation time, as they went to bed later but still got up early the next morning.
    CONCLUSION: This study showed that in addition to the physiological and developmental factors that influence children's sleep, the socio-economic context also plays a role. These results as a whole highlight the importance that practitioners and families should pay to maintaining a regularity in the child's routine and in the amount of sleep necessary at each age.

    PMID: 14761728 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Role of school schedule, age, and parental socioeconomic status on sleep duration and sleepiness of Parisian children.

    1er mars 2020, par Guérin N, Reinberg A, Testu F, Boulenguiez S, Mechkouri M, Touitou Y — Chronobiol Int
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    Role of school schedule, age, and parental socioeconomic status on sleep duration and sleepiness of Parisian children.

    Chronobiol Int. 2001 Nov;18(6):1005-17

    Authors: Guérin N, Reinberg A, Testu F, Boulenguiez S, Mechkouri M, Touitou Y

    Abstract
    The aim of the study was to assess the duration and quality of sleep of prepubertal (Tanner Scale level 1) physically and mentally healthy children as a function of school schedule (4 versus 4.5 days per week), age and grade (median age of 9.5 years for 4th grade versus median age of 10.5 years for 5th grade), school district (wealthy versus nonwealthy) in Paris, France, and parental socioeconomic status (high, medium, or low). We studied 51 girl and 44 boy volunteer pupils with written parental consent. The study lasted 2 weeks during the month of March. During the first study week, the children attended school 4.5 days, and during the second week, they attended school only 4 days without difference in the length of the school day. A sleep log was used to ascertain time of lights off for sleep and lights on at awakening, nighttime sleep duration, and self-rated sleep quality. A visual analog scale (VAS) was also used by pupils to self-rate the level of perceived sleepiness at four specific times of the school day. Conventional statistical methods (e.g., t and chi2 tests) were used to examine differences in mean values. Sleep duration, self-rated sleepiness, and subjective sleep quality were comparable (P > .05) by gender, school schedule, school district, and parental socioeconomic status. Overall, the sleep of this sample of Parisian children around 10 years of age was rather stable in its duration and timing, suggesting flexibility to adjust to the different school schedules.

    PMID: 11777075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  • Age-related differences in daily attention patterns in preschool, kindergarten, first-grade, and fifth-grade pupils.

    1er mars 2020, par Janvier B, Testu F — Chronobiol Int
    Related Articles

    Age-related differences in daily attention patterns in preschool, kindergarten, first-grade, and fifth-grade pupils.

    Chronobiol Int. 2007;24(2):327-43

    Authors: Janvier B, Testu F

    Abstract
    The purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in the daily attention patterns of preschool, kindergarten, first-grade, and fifth-grade pupils by means of a cross-sectional sample of 4-11-year-old French students. The importance of this study comes from the need to understand attention and apply the information it provides in educational settings. The first study conducted in a school setting with three age groups (4-5-, 6-7-, and 10-11-year-olds) demonstrated a rapid rhythmicity (60 minute period) for preschoolers (4-5 years old), with higher performance at the beginning of a teaching session. This pattern evolved until the fifth grade (10-11-year-olds), after which the temporal variation in attention was comparable to that of working adults, with fluctuations occurring on a half-day basis. The children's scores on crossing-out tests rose during the morning, declined in the early afternoon, and then rose again later during the afternoon. The second study enhanced our understanding of the change of the rhythm in attention of 4-7-year-old pupils. The rapid daily rhythmicity, linked to a session effect, seems to gradually disappear as children move from preschool 2 to kindergarten (4-5- to 5-6-year-olds) and then on to first grade (6-7-year-olds), where the daily attention patterns are closer to the standard pattern found by chronopsychology studies. The evolving patterns obtained from group means were confirmed by analysis of individual patterns. Exploratory statistical analysis of the data provided greater detail on the observed interindividual patterns, indicating that within each school grade, the attention patterns of some children are similar to the standard pattern while the attention patterns of others are more atypical. Deviations were mainly found in the 5-6-year-old age range (kindergarteners). The greatest 'mixture' of patterns was observed in the kindergartners (5-6-year-olds). Age plays a role not only in modifying daily changes but also in the distribution of interindividual differences in daily fluctuations, which occur most when children are of kindergarten age (5-6 years of age).

    PMID: 17453851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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